Monday, February 13, 2017


Análise do quadro Iracema (1883) por José Maria Medeiros

Grupo: Guilherme, Helen Max e Lucas

O quadro Iracema criado em 1883 por José Maria de Medeiros teve como inspiração o romance de José de Alencar. A narrativa tem como base a ideologia padrão do romancista: a construção da identidade brasileira. A fusão do português com o índio. O romance é construído em torno da índia da tribo dos tabajaras e sua relação com português Martim Soares Moreno. O quadro retrata o início da história, os dois protagonistas prestes a se encontrarem. O pintor ilustra Iracema pousando sua mão direita sobre o seu seio, possivelmente remetendo à pintura de Botticelli do nascimento da deusa Afrodite. A mesma tem a sua mão sobre o seu seio e graciosamente olha para baixo. Pode-se estabelecer um paralelo com esta referência. Já que a origem indígena da identidade brasileira, como vista por José de Alencar, se compõe essencialmente de tribos e índios nobres que não praticam antropofagia e satisfazem mais os valores europeus, a similaridade entre Iracema, a índia polida e Afrodite é justificada como um retrato dessa identidade -  a mescla dos valores europeus com o indígena brasileiro.
No romance, Iracema inicia por atirar uma flecha em Martin, mas este não contra ataca, ela, então o leva para sua tribo, onde depois de ser oferecido várias esposas pelo Pajé, o europeu recusa e deixa a tribo. Iracema vai atrás dele e conforme o tempo, ambos se apaixonam um por outro e acabam tendo um filho. Depois de um tempo, Martim vai à guerra, e Iracema, arrasada por não ver ou ter notícias de seu amado, não é mais capaz de produzir leite para amamentar o seu bebê.Quando Martin retorna da guerra,Iracema entrega-lhe seu filho e morre. Sua morte é necessária para ambas a preservação do amor cortês, pois ao morrer, o amor dos dois nunca alcançará o cotidiano, e o padrão do Romantismo, que é a morte do índio pelo europeu.

Friday, October 7, 2016


My Dearest Holden,


The purpose of this letter was to convey how J.D. Salinger was able to find salvation to all the horror he had experience and innocence he had lost during the war, to the contempt he felt towards people who were concerned about things he concerned unimportant due to the huge contrast of the dread of the war and the ordinary quotidian issues. Due to the fact that Salinger based Holden off himself, it could be said that they are the same person - and by saving Holden, he managed to save himself! I hope I can shed a light on the emotional side of both Salinger and Holden, hence, with that knowledge, you will be able to empathize with how the creator and character see the world, then, likewise realize how Catcher In The Rye was a mean of redemption for J.D. Salinger. Enjoy!

Letter: 

My Dearest Holden,
I am writing we are one, that no one else could possibly fit in as perfectly as we do in each other's puzzle pieces. How we both seem to be able to visualize this enormous breach existent in the nature of humankind that, unbeknownst to many, exists and is constantly present in the our quotidian life. This rupture that protrudes amongst the sequence of ordinary human behavior called hypocrisy and indifference. The thought of those contemptuous concepts eventually reaching those who are still innocent makes us sick. That is why, Holden, we are so suitable for each other - we think just alike! Plus, beyond sharing the same perspectives on human nature, there is something else that I relish in you. You are my one and only liberator. And that is because, through this everlasting bond that we share, you, Holden, managed to save me in the meantime I saved you.
Confused? I would think so. This will all become much clearer by the end of this letter. But I won't yet tell you exactly why you are my liberator, there are other matters I would like to address before that. First, I'd like to say that although we share the same psyche, we have walked down distinct paths, only entwined by the string of our perceptions of the world. How exactly do our paths differ? Join me on a little backstory.
Firstly, Holden, you have the lenses capable of showing you how the adult world truly is by its nature. I too have those lenses. I obtained them on the 6th of June of 1944, or what historians like to call "D-Day". They became clearer on September that same year, whist I was lying down in the greens of Belgian flora in the Hürtgen forest, begging that the agonizing roar of German bombs would stop. However by the time I had stumbled in one of Dachau’s sub-camps, that was when I could see through those lenses as clear as crystal. The first sight I had seen in that concentration camp were figures resembling children, they were all gathered close together, stacked up in a cluster of petite corpses. I was mortified.
The war had turned me into a moribund. I had seen humanity at its worst, I had seen what humans were capable of. This dreadful indifference they have towards their martyrs. After that, Holden, you really are not the same. You live in this alternate reality, where when you return to the life you had before the war, it all seems unreal. I am sure you can empathize with this feeling when, you, someone who has seen the edge of mankind, comes across ordinary people who seem to be deeply affected by something as insignificant as impressing other people with their petty achievements? They are all driven by the wrong things, Holden.
You can see how those adults around you all do not seem to care nor understand. How they are driven to things that have absolutely no deep significance. How they are no longer innocent. And you, Holden, are repugnated by that sight. Just like I was and am, when I see that these adults are, not only devoid of pureness, but also kill it with their own bare hands. Those Jewish children, Holden, do you know how much innocence was mercilessly lacerated by those evil driven adults? And you, Holden, you see through your lenses, the nefarious adulthood, and protect the innocent from dwelling in it. Although you were not in The War, do know that warfare is not the only thing that kills innocence. In your world, Holden, it is the dullness and burden of becoming an adult and losing the joy for life that all virtuous youth have.
Then, I thought that not only you have the wish to save the innocent, but your innocence too needed to be saved. Through all your journey, you seek for answers, you wish that someone would reassure you that adulthood is not as fearful as you think it is as you approach it. Over and over, Holden, you attempt to reach out for people who would possibly be able to tell you that adulthood will be okay - your old teachers, your senior colleagues, a prostitute, two nuns, cab drivers- but none of them actually listen to you, none of them genuinely care. They were all immersed in their own minds as adults that none of them were able to honestly empathize. I have likewise wished to be told that it would all be okay, but no one around me ever did.
People create things, characters, stories, Holden, but they never really know what they mean. However in their subconscious, these things they create are what they desire the most. You were born because I yearned for salvation. So the moment you asked your beloved Phoebe to listen to you, she did. The moment you saw her “go around and around” you realized that instead of a straight path to aging, life could go around and around, from innocence, in a full circle, to virtuality once again. It does not have to end. Deep down, Holden, I wanted to be listened to, I wanted to be told that life was not a linear road that led to the inevitable darkness of adulthood. But I did not get that from anyone...until you came by! Therefore coming back to what I mentioned in the beginning of this letter, due to the fact that we are infinitely connected, meaning that we are under no circumstances emotionally separated, when I saved you from having to be crushed down by the cold reality of human nature, I, through your reality, created a safe alternate universe for myself, where the solution and thought I set for you was possible for me too. By the time I gave you that answer, Holden, I caught you in the rye. And you did the same for me.

Yours truly,
J.D. Salinger

If you ever wanted to understand Holden Caulfield through J.D. Salinger's eyes, now that you've read this, your wish is fulfilled.

Tuesday, June 7, 2016

Project SI: Prototying Safe Cars (Sci. Inq.)

The objective of this project was to test the students' knowledge on car safety - something we had learned before getting into the basics of Newton's Laws. It, however, is not completely unrelated to physics, for cars do not walk separately from motion. Momentum, inertia, collision, acceleration, velocity, all these are related to vehicles, to demonstrate how physics and our daily automobiles are entwined. 
The challenge proposed was that students needed to simulate a car crash, with an egg as the passenger, and the passenger would have to come out intact, to prove that a method is efficient, or come out cracked or broken, to prove that a method is inefficient. Five methods of safety were proposed for us to build our prototype on: airbags, seatbelts, brakes, crumple zones and 
an optional choice of vehicle mass.
My partner, Sophia Takahashi, and I, as a way to approach and solve the challenge, chose to simulate a crumple zone. The crumple zone is a safety method which encourages that part of a vehicle, mostly the front and rear, should be designed to crumple during a crash, thus absorbing the main force of the impact. The larger the crumple zone, the more impact should be absorbed by it, therefore less reaching the passenger. We started designing based on these principles. 

To start prototyping, our required materials were: 
- 30 cm of masking tape
- 30x30 cm aluminium foil 
- a ball of clay 
- tissue 
- spaghetti 
- 6 marshmallows 

We were given a wooden box, and our egg passenger alongside all the required material. With that, we began prototyping. Using the ball of clay, we made a seat for our egg and the rest was shaped into a rectangular shape to serve as the frontal crumple zone. We covered the rectangular clay in aluminium foil to give it extra mass. After that, we added the marshmallows to the tip of our rectangle. Since marshmallows have mild elasticity and are softer, they would make the impact smoother. The spaghetti were grouped together to form a rectangular platform, so it could be placed underneath our clay/marshmallow crumple zone and prevent it from falling down. Finally, we taped our crumple zone to the wooden box, and the wooden box to our metal cart. 



Creds to: Sophia Takahashi

We then, had our vehicle ready to be tested.




To test our vehicle, we used a metal ramp in which we could attach the base of the cart to it and slide it downwards. The ramp had 121 cm, therefore that would be our distance. We piled up books in order to form an altitude of 48 centimeters and placed the end of the metal ramp inclined to the pile of books. It formed roughly an angle of 45 degrees. We put a 1m distance between the end of the ramp and the collision place (in our case, a hardcover book). Testing would be releasing our vehicle form the start of the ramp until it collided with the book, we did that thrice, while measuring the time it took until the collision for each trial. 
The first time we released it, the egg was perfectly intact. On the second time, it was also intact, however the on the third time we tested, the egg cracked a little. That would lead us to our conclusion on the efficiency of our safety method.

The aftermath of the crashes 

The injured passenger

After we had two (distance and time) of the essential information (distance, time and mass), we would have to move on and measure the mass of our vehicle. We dismounted it and placed everything inside the box, then, we put it on the scale. 





With the data we had (time, distance and mass) we were required to calculate the force and the velocity. 
We converted the centimeters to meters (since velocity is measured in meters) and grams to kilograms (since newtons are measured in kilograms). Like that, we were able to find out these information: 


Since our egg cracked a little after the third and last trial, it can be concluded that our safety method is not one hundred percent efficient. However, if we were to apply this to real life, a vehicle would have all the five stated safety methods. If it took three crashes for a car with only a crumple zone as a safety mechanism to become inefficient, the protection would increase by nearly 90% if all the safety methods were present in a car during a collision. 

Sunday, May 8, 2016

Still Life Blog (Summative Blog #3)


In this unit, students were introduced to still life paintings and the techniques of creating them. The objective of this unit was to practice what we have learned back in our first painting lessons: draw and paint exactly what we see. Still lives, however, are more difficult than the studies, because this time, we had no reference image to base ourselves on, we were looking at real three-dimensional objects that were placed right beside us. Plus, that would be our first legitimate paintings with easels and real life references. We had drawn objects based on our own vision before, but painting it was a different occasion, because it comes in layers and takes a whole lot of time to be finished. Although it would not be an easy process, we were taught techniques to make the process a whole lot easier.
Firstly, we were taught to underpaint. That is, filling in the whole canvas with one color that would suit the palette of your composition. Right after that, you block in the regions where shadows are present with a darker color such as blue, or any suited darker hue that suits your composition's palette. There are two types of underpainting, both served to make us have a future reference of where the colors should be placed, to define certain values, to build in some contrast and to unite the colors that are later placed with the values in the underpainting.  The first type of underpainting is called Tonal Ground. Where you cover your entire canvas with one color.

(Example of Tonal Ground)
The other type of underpainting is called Tonal Underpainting. This one is as described previously, you also fill it in with one color, but then you block in the areas where you wish a lighter or darker value.

As the image above, once you fill it in, your canvas will look monochromatic, the color sequence of an analogous composition, to provide a unity amongst the hues. However after you fill in your canvas with the base, you will start blocking in the colors that are originally present in your still lives, that is when the hues will show more contrast. The shadows will remain in the composition, and some regions of the underpainting can be left purposely uncovered.
The image above shows how the original darker shade of orange on the hair is still present in the final composition, and that the painter has left some hints of orange in the background to give the piece a warmer tone. 
For my composition, I chose a set of toys to draw, and they all possessed a similar hue, pink. So for composition of warm pink tones, I chose to underpaint my canvas yellow and fill in my shadows with purple. I then, blocked in the original colors.

(Final composition)

Reflection Questions: 

  1. How is the experience of painting 3D objects different from working from an image/copying? What did you find challenging? Easier? It really differs in the sense that our brain processes 2D and 3D figures in a completely different way. It was challenging to focus on a specific part of my still life. I had to use a viewfinder and amplify the objects so that their ends would touch the canvas. That was probably the most challenging part of the transition from image reference to real life. Also, when we had the composition on paper, all we had to do is copy, but this time, we had to draw them for ourselves, with our minds constantly tricking us. That too was a hard part. 
  2. Is the composition (placement of object and framing) successful? Would you change anything?I think it was quite successful, since I was able to fit all of it in my canvas and make it touch at least two ends if the canvas. I would not change anything, because I think that the way the toys are arranged fit perfectly on canvas. 
  3. Did you find underpainting to be a beneficial part of the painting process (layout/value,etc.) and or end result (colour/value/form,etc.)? The underpainting was not as useful for me, probably because I was not using it in the right way.For example, I did fill in the shadows, but they ended up more being a guideline of where to put my new shadow than the one itself. With more practice, I am sure I will be able to put underpainting to a good use. However underpainting itself is useful for having a sense for where to put a color while painting and establishing some values and tones, I could not use fully use the second description due to lack of practice. 
  4. If you were to continue to work on the painting, what would you focus on developing or improving? Explain.If I had more time to improve it, I would work on my shadows. The shadow right in the place where the objects touches the base, the shadows and highlights caused by the lighting, the shadows emitted when one object overlays another. I would also work on the objects' three-dimensionality. Bring them from 2D to 3D. 
  5. Discuss two ways you feel your painting has improved to date. When I first signed up for the course, I did not know a slight thing about painting techniques. But now I am aware of underpainting and how it can be used to achieve a more sophisticated piece. This is one way I feel my abilities have improved. Even though I have not yet mastered underpainting, I know how it can it used and the importance of using it in a composition. I also understand the importance of values, shadows and highlights. They are what brings the composition to life. If not used correctly, the painting may not look realistic. In my composition, I could have improved them more, adding some more shadows and highlights in the correct place. Essentially, those are two of the things I have learned that really do help me think better in future compositions. 

Saturday, April 16, 2016

1. Using the Excel document as your data source, enter the scores of the winning and losing teams

into your calculator. The winning teams’ scores will be entered into L1 and the losing teams’

scores should be entered in L2. You should check to make sure that your data was entered

correctly and check that you have 50 entries for both L1 and L2.



2. Determine the average score for the winners and the average score for the losers. All scores

should be rounded to the nearest integer.

Average score for the winners: 29.78

Average score for the losers: 15.82

3. Create a box and whisker chart for both the winners’ and losers’ scores. How do the median

scores compare? Remember, in order to construct a box and whisker chart, you will need to

find the minimum, median, maximum and the 1 st and 3 rd quartiles. Make sure that the scales are

accurate.

5 number summary of the winners:
Min - 14
Max - 55
Q1 - 23
Q3 - 35
Med - 28.5 

5 number summary of the losers:
Min - 3
Max - 31
Q1 - 10
Q3 - 21
Med - 16.5

Box and Whisker chart

:

The median of the winning group is somewhat the double of that of the losers'. 


4. Compare the Standard Deviations between the winning and losing scores. How are they similar?

How are they different? What do they mean?

SD of winners: 9.80
SD of losers: 6.77

The standard deviation measures how spread out the numbers in a data are. On average the scores of the winners are 10 points away from their median, making it more inconsistent than the losers' SD, because it is only 6 points away of their median. The shorter the distance, the more consistent the data is.

5. Could there be a correlation between the Super Bowl number and the score of the game? No

Calculate the linear regression between the Super Bowl number and the winning score. What is

the correlation coefficient (r)?  0.22 approximately. What does that tell us? That tell us there is n correlation between both datas. Passing numbers have increased over the past few years due to changes in rules. Has there been an increase in scores over the past few games? No, the score results are completely irregular and do not increase according to the years. How did you come to that conclusion? Because there is no correlation between both datas. 



6. Calculate the linear regression between the winning team and the losing team. What does the

correlation coefficient tell us? That tell us that there is no correlation between both datas. Based on your model, if the winning team scores 35 points, how many points will the losing team score? If the losing team scores 12 points, how many will the winning team score? 1) Y=0.22x35+9.27 = 16.97. 
2) 12= 0.22X+9.27 = 12.40.


Tuesday, March 29, 2016

PORCO - a card game

My group was formed by Sophia Takahashi, Lucía de la Torre,  Giulia di Bella, Isabella Farhat and I. We were given an envelope with a series of cards.  There were some cards with pathogens, some with the corresponding treatment for the pathogens, some with aspects which help one acquire or prevent a certain disease caused by the pathogens and some with a sick or healthy people. We only used the first three of them and added the pathogen/disease card that were created by other students. We got 5 cards: a fungi, a virus, a bacteria, a protozoa and a virus with no cure. We sorted out the pathogen cards that were given to us (with all 4 pathogens + 1 virus), we sorted out their treatment (vaccine, fungicide, antibiotics, antiparasitic and advanced medical treatment) and finally, we sorted out some of the aspects that will influence on someone preventing or acquiring the pathogen.


 


how does the game show what we have personally learned
The game was meticulously thought and planned. As the images show, to play this game, one needs to know which classification their given disease/pathogen is. By that, they'll have to know the treatment for this pathogen and under which circumstances this microorganism attacks someone or the person successfully avoids contracting the disease. All these information were presented to us through the classes. Therefore it shows how we have learned the proper content by playing the game.


Saturday, February 27, 2016

Unit one: The Fundamentals

In this unit, students had to learn the fundamentals and basics of drawing exercises, for those are the base of painting. When we initiated, some of us had more experience with illustrating, some less. Yet that did not make any of us better or worse, because we all had a common aim - start being able to perceive and draw exactly what is in front of us, not what our brains already know about the artifact in study, and develop our skills so we would not start coloring on canvas with zero experience. We did a series of activities such as blind contouring, drawing without seeing the object, turning references upside down and illustrating them, all for the sake of developing our skills to separate our hands from our brains. 

Drawing Exercises

Copying artworks and flipping it upside down:
Students had to select one of two famous artworks to copy it. Placing the copy of the original work in either side of the paper, we attempted to copy the work the exact way it was drawn by the artist. We were given 15-30 minutes to do so. I selected the illustration of a woman. It was easy to draw her. The lines were sketchy, which made everything easier for me, since I am quite used to sketching and doodling. But there was one issue when I finished my drawing: It looked like I was staring at the lady in my paper from the same level. It was from a completely different point of view than of the original artist's, for in the artisan's perspective, the illustrator seemed to be looking down at the woman.


But after we all finished our drawings, we had to flip the reference upside down, and draw it that way. It was a tough task, but it was for the sake of tricking our brains - make our eyes cease to visualize people, and start looking for the shapes and forms the drawing contained. It was not easy for me anymore. I chose a work full of curves, so it was difficult to extract any shape from it. In the end, it turned out to be more accurate than my other version - I had gotten the right perspective. 

Blind Contour:
The main idea of blind contouring was to make us focus on our hand and its details instead of setting the limelight on our papers, because by doing so, we would be drawing hands off our memories. The technique was to draw one continuous line, and when we'd lift our pencils, take a quick glance, position it on track and look away. 

In this activity, we were not worried about perfection, because none of us could see what we were drawing. What we had to do was to try to get as much details ad possible. 

Negative space drawing: 
For this activity, students used a viewfinder to focus on one specific area. We drew a rectangle, and we aimed to have our artifact(s) to be touching at least 2 sides of our rectangle. We were taught that the are of the object had the name "positive space" and whatever area that we can see though the object and any are around it is considered negative space. Students chose a specific area to draw, and afterwards, fill in the negative space with graphite.
The purpose of filling in the negative space was to make us realize that there were shapes around the objects we were drawing. And not only the object itself.


Value scale and Shaded forms:
After practicing our drawing skills, we finally moved on to shading. The shades are the second essential part of painting. It makes your 2D forms come to live, creating an illusion of a 3D object right on the flat paper. We started by creating a value scale of greyscale. Value is a even gradation of a lighter color getting evenly darker.

Given a light source and a flat shape, we had to, though shading, create the illusion of a 3D form. Where the light source hits, the value of that region will be 1, and it will be named a highlight. As we get further away from the highlight, our values will start going up, if it is closed to the highlight, the value will be 2 or 3, they are called the Midtones, if it is further from it, 4 and 5 will be the perfect values. Those will be named Core shadow. The last and highest value 6m will be used for the shadow casted by the form, that so our drawing looks more realistic. And often when an object is placed on a white surface, some of the light will be reflected onto it. Therefore, it is good to add a small piece of reflected light if that is the case.
Draped material:
This was our last step of pencil before moving on to color. We were told to illustrate a draped material, which was a stool covered by a piece of cloth. We were divided into two tables, one table contained a brighter draped material and the other, a darker one. We had to apply what we have learned about values to real objects, not only that but we had to draw the material ourselves, it was the perfect final activity, for it combined all we have been learning, from drawing principles to shading and values. 

Reflection Questions:

1. I think the most challenging aspect of the line and shape activities were to resist the impulse of letting my brain take over control and draw everything based on my memories. I was never a copy specialist, whenever I drew, I like to be creative and imaginative. But after a few times of practices, I got to accept the concept of putting the brain aside better. I personally did not find the form and value part challenging, it was rather fun for me to do it. I have always wanted to learn how to manage shade and tint, and when I finally did, I was happy to know that I could use the knowledge for my own productions. 

2. I would choose to improve my blind contouring skills. For me, it is already hard to draw a hand looking at the paper, it becomes even harder if I am not looking. I still find it hard to draw my hand without overlapping all my fingers. Maybe more practices will make me improve my skills. Some more patience, more time, and when I get used to my own movements on the paper, memorize where I last passed through with the pencil, I'll probably stop overlapping.

3. Growing up in a small school, I was always told I had great drawing talent. And I also did think I was quite good at drawing, that is because no one else in my school could draw really well. I also never took any sort of art class for more that 1 week, so I had no knowledge about any concepts, terms and techniques of art. This painting course is my first long term class. And before I took it, I only accepted drawing in my own way and style. As a self taught (amateur, of course) artist, I did not like the concept to getting told what to do. I've always been drawing freestyle anyway. It was a sort of a street basketball, with no rules and no fixed form, but in drawing. After all the exercises, I realized I was being naïve. I obviously needed to know much more than just my shallow drawing talent. And I was really satisfied when I learned about shadowing, something I never knew how to do properly. But I hope it doesn't stop there. I'm looking forward to learning even more about art.

4.  First, being able to separate our memories from what is in front of us. It makes our drawings more accurate, so the painting part will be more accurate. Second, seeing shapes around the figure(s), that will also help the accuracy of drawing figures. Third, which in my opinion is the most important, shading. It makes the drawing look more realistic and I think it adds a delicate beauty to the picture.

Blog Entry #2 - Color Theory 

Color Theory 
In this new content, students moved from the basics of drawing to the basics of color. We would now be adding colors to our illustrations. Of course, that did not mean we have completely moved on to another subject, leaving drawing completely behind. Drawing is the base of painting, and for the particular activities we have done during this process, we did not separate the paintbrushes from our pencils. For we had to sketch in order to serve our paint strokes as a substructure. 
In this part of the course, students had completed three different types of activity: 1. Devising a color wheel 2. Creating four value scales 3. Doing fruit studies. 
The students all went through these activities to start familiarizing with hues, as much as preparing us to the initiation of our official painting projects, provided we have grasped the concept of the basics of color. Once we got familiar with how hues work to create complementary or analogous colors, tinting or shading them, and mixing them to get the correct color, we would be able to move on to our still life paintings. It was learned that there were three primary colors: red, yellow and blue. With these colors only, one is able to create secondary colors and tertiary ones. We then, were told that the colors that sit by each other on the color wheel are called analogous colors. 


The complete opposite of this is called complementary colors. This occurs when a color in the wheel is combined with one completely opposite from its position on the wheel. 

Analogous colors can be used to create a monochromatic composition.
Complementary colors can be used to create a complementary composition. 

We also learned that it was possible, to make a hue lighter or darker, to tint or shade it. Tinting means adding white to a hue, whereas shading means adding black to it. 


There are neutral colors. Those are black, white greys and browns. They can be obtained by mixing black and white, complementary colors and mixing all the three primary colors. 

Finally, we learned that colors can express temperature. The two extremes that separate the warm colors from cool colors are green and purple. If we add more yellow to green, it can be considered a warm color. If we add more blue to it, it can be considered a cool color. Same applies to purple. More red means warmer, more blue means cooler. 


Activity 1 - Color Wheel

With all the concepts and terminologies in mind, the students would be creating a color wheel of their own to use it as a reference when mixing colors. We first started with a compass and a ruler, dividing a bigger circle into two smaller circular segments. Then, we divided the circle in the middle, followed by drawing 12 other lines. The middle part would be filled with the pure hues. We had to make sure that we placed the primary colors in such way they formed a triangle within the wheel.
Then, we would put in the secondary colors (purple, orange and green) which would also for a trianle within the wheel. 

After that, we would be filling in the blank blocks in the middle section. For example, if one chose to start with red, then they could mix red with a little bit of blue to start inclining to the purple side, adding more and more blue until it reaches the secondary color purple hue block. 
After this process was complete with all the hues, all that was left to do is to, in the outer section, tint each color in the middle section according to the position of the block. If the orange block was to be tintes, for example, the block used in the outer section should lie right above the orange block. 
The same process should be done but instead, with shading. 
After complete, the color wheel should be looking like this. 



Once that is complete, the student would have the reference for mixing colors right while painting. 

Activity 2 - Value Scales

For this activity, we had to create four value scales with seven sections each:
1. Greyscale 
2. Tint and shade scale (with the pure hue in the middle value) 
3. Two complementary colors scale (with one color set in value one and its complementary in value 7)
The exercise was developed for us to get used to creating even gradations with acrylic paint. By this activity, it was discovered that to mix a color, one must start with the lighter one, and slowly and in small amounts, adding the darker one to make a fairly smooth gradation. 
In the tint and shade scale, I chose to use blue. 
As for the complementary hues scale, I chose to use red and green/orange and blue.

Activity 3 - Fruit studies

In this activity, we moved into a more advanced color study. It was no longer working with hues and mixing them only, but how to put them inside the correspondent painting we chose to copy. This activity really did involve the basics of drawings, for we had to copy the artist's drawing to give us a base and start painting. 
Our first study was an egg. And it was the one that took most time and imposed most challenges. I had a hard time figuring out how to match the colors I created to those used in the original composition, what was specially hard for me was to get the background right. After attempting various times, I was advised to stand further from my artwork, to get the larger sense of what I was doing. After all, studies did aim to get the colors right, not to become an exact copy of the original artwork. I was losing hope on the study at some point, but I figured the problem I faced was that the colors were not blended in. Ms. York then, taught me a technique to use two paintbrushes, each containing the darker and the lighter color, and as the paint was still wet, we could blend the darker color in the lighter by evenly painting with both brushes. It turned out that the egg looked rather similar, but I did not succeed with the background.

For the second study, students copied a lemon. This time, with fairly more insight on how to blend the colors, the painting process was smoother this time. In the end, it was all a matter of layering. 

The last study was of an avocado. This time, there were more colors involved. But after the previous studies, there was no particular challenging boundary either. It was just a matter of time to get it neatly done. 

Reflection Questions:

1. In my opinion, the hardest activity in the whole color theory was the egg study. Mainly because it was my first painting on canvas and in acrylic paint. I had never had any experience with painting before, specially with evening the different values in a composition. I did not know how to blend in the colors, therefore I was constantly struggling with the background. In the end, I gave up on it and worked on the egg, yet the shading part of the egg was also hard for me to blend. I then, asked for help. And was taught a technique that still works for me in any painting I did from then on. Knowing the concept of blending the colors, painting became an easier task for me to do.

2. The egg study: I can clearly improve the blending of the background. Also, the egg I painted is way more inclined than the original one. I could fix the angle and make it less declined. 
The lemon study: I can improve the place in which the lemon curves in out of sight by brushing a slightly darker shade of grey, to cause the tridimensional illusion. I can also improve on the wooden box where the lemon lies. It doesn't look a lot like it is a box, much less wooden. I could have layered it more.
The avocado study: The outer layer of the avocado (brown part) is not neatly done, and not close to looking like the skin on the fruit. It could have been thiner, and more refined in the bottom. I could have textured the avocado more, so it looked like its surface is uneven. The avocado part on the left does not have a fully defined hole, I can make it better by adding shades from the lighter part to the darker and cause the space illusion. 

3. The lemon study is what I consider the most successful one painted by me so far. It is probably because the time to do it was long enough, and that I had the blending technique already in mind. However one thing I would absolutely improve is the wooden box beneath the fruit. Compared to original one, my version has much less colors to define the brown in it as wooden. Maybe more layers could have helped. 

4. One. You must not be hasty. Everyone has their pace while painting. What is most challenging about painting is getting the color right. If you hurriedly mix the colors, without initially thinking about how the painter has originally mixed it, you can easily make a huge waste of paint. Another aspect about rushing, is not to think of when you're going to finish the painting. It would be rather helpful to concentrate on copying the original in the most similar way you can than just thinking about your final result. 
Two. From time to time, get distant from your work and look at it from far. That helps you not get too caught up in details, and focus on the larger piece. Once that is decided, you can see what on the larger sense is still lacking, then you go back and do it. Details may come in later. 
Three. Blend well. It is not visually pleasing to look at a badly blended composition. It looks fragmented, not like one only piece. Also, blending your hues and values will give the painting a more realistic air. 
Four: Take a break. If you feel like you can't continue painting or else it'll drive you mad, stop. Leave for a short walk around the second floor. Breathe the fresh air. Relax and come back in. It is not effective to try and finish the whole piece in one sitting, even though you feel like it is getting impossible.